Indus valley Civilization Tour
The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilization (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) in northwest Indian subcontinent (including present day Pakistan, northwest India) and also in some regions in northeast Afghanistan. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, and the most widespread among them, covering an area of 1.25 million km. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, one of the major rivers of Asia, and the now dried up Sarasvati River, which once coursed through northwest India and eastern Pakistan together with its tributaries flowed along a channel, presently identified as that of the Ghaggar-Hakra River on the basis of various scientific studies. Due to the spread of the civilization along both the river valleys, some scholars use the term Indus-Sarasvati Civilization.
At its peak, the Indus Civilization may have had a population of more than 5 million inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley developed new techniques in handicraft (carnelian products, seal carving) and metallurgy (copper, bronze, lead, and tin). The Indus cities are noted for their urban planning, baked brick houses, elaborate drainage systems, water supply systems, and clusters of large non-residential buildings.
The Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization, after Harappa, the first of its sites to be excavated in the 1920s, in what was then the Punjab province of British India, and is now in Pakistan. The discovery of Harappa, and soon afterwards, Mohenjo Daro, was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India in the British Raj. Excavation of Harappan sites has been ongoing since 1920, with important breakthroughs occurring as recently as 1999. There were earlier and later cultures, often called Early Harappan and Late Harappan, and pre-Harappan cultures, in the same area of the Harappan Civilization. The Harappan civilization is sometimes called the Mature Harappan culture to distinguish it from these cultures. Bhirrana in Haryana, India may be the oldest pre-Harappan site, dating back to 7570-6200 BCE.
By 1999, over 1,056 cities and settlements had been found, of which 96 have been excavated, mainly in the general region of the Indus and the Sarasvati River and their tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan and Rakhigarhi, Rakhigarhi in Haryana, India, being the largest Indus Valley Civilization site with 350-hectare (3.5 km2) area.
The Harappan language is not directly attested and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered. A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language family is favored by a section of scholars, while others suggest an Austro-Asiatic language related to Munda.
Day 01: Karachi
Arrive Karachi: Sightseeing: Quaid’s Mausoleum, Dhobi Ghat (washermen’s area).
Day 02: Karachi – Hyderabad
Drive to Hyderabad. En route visit Chaukundi Tombs, Shah Jehan Mosque at Thatta, Makli Hills necropolis.
Day 03: Day excursion to Thar Desert
Depart early morning for excursion to Mithi in Thar Desert. Visit Hindu temples and a ‘village’ nearby. Return to Hyderabad.
Day 04: Hyderabad
Morning visit Sind Museum and Mausoleums of Talpurs. Afternoon drive to Hala a center for Sindhi handicrafts (Ajrak cloth, blue and white ceramics/tiles etc).
Evening Visit Mausoleum of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai at Bhit Shah. Overnight at Bhit Shah or Hyderabad.
Day 05: Hyderabad – Sukkur
Morning drive to Sukkur. Visit Kot Diji Fort.
Day 06: Sukkur – Mohenjo Daro
Morning visit Sadbhela Hindu Temple on an island in the Indus river. Afternoon drive to Mohenjodaro
Day 07: Mohenjo Daro
Morning visit Museum and ruins of Mohenjodaro (the most important site of the Indus valley civilization 2500 B.C).
Day 08: Mohenjo Daro – Multan
Departure for Multan, arrive and transfer to the hotel.
Day 09: Multan
Day to visit Mausoleum of Sufi mystics: Shah Rukn-e-Alam and Bahauddin Zakria. Afternoon visit bazaar.
Day 10: Multan – Lahore
Departure for Lahore, en-route visit Harappa, arrive and transfer to the hotel.
Day 11: Lahore
Day to visit Lahore Museum, National College of Arts (if permission (available). Afternoon Shalimar Gardens & Bagh-e-Jinnah (Jinnah Garden).
Day 12: Lahore
Day to visit Mausoleum of Jehangir (the 4th Great Moghul Emperor). Then Badshahi Mosque and Lahore Fort. Afternoon stroll through old city. Visit Wazir Khan Mosque.
Day 21: Fly to destination
Drive to the airport and fly to destination